excess of joy." Thus it is with Christians we enter into battle, when we are citedto your tribunals, there to combat for truth with the hazard of our. However, it may not be amiss just to mention some of theways they took to conceal and colour the impostures. and soothsayers, and augurs, and magiciansabout the life of the emperors;2 for these fortune-telling arts deliveredby fallen angels, and interdicted by God, the Christians never applyto in any cause of theirs. We have nothing to do with themadness of the Cirque, with the obsceneness of the stage, and thecruelty of the amphitheatre, and the vanity of the Xystus.1 TheEpicurean sect is tolerated in the exercise of their pleasures, andwhy are we such intolerable offenders for non-conforming withyou in point of pleasure? Filthy pliers about baths. Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £20. 2 From this sacri- legious mixture it is that we are so ridiculed when we preach aboutthe day of judgment, for in imitation of this the poets andphilosophers have their tribunal in the infernal region; and if wethreaten them with hell, which is a subterranean treasure of secretfire reserved for the punishment of the wicked, we are hooted at;for thus they ape us too with their Puriphlegeton2 or burning riveramong the shades below; and if we mention Paradise,3 a place of. Some are of opinion that this custom of swearing by the safetyof the emperor was introduced by Augustus, from that of Horace. Did ever any heathen priest ormagician make such a challenge at the hazard of their lives? For a Christian upon hisknees to his God is in a posture of defence against all the evilsyou can crowd upon him. diss. And Persius, speaking of Herod's birthday, has thesewords. So that Christianity and philosophy differ just as much as heavenand earth, as a name that can do everything, and a mere empty title. CONCERNING THE RESURRECTION OF THE BODY. For, if I mistake not, kingdoms or empires are got by wars, andpropagated by victories, and wars and victories for the most partconclude in the captivity and desolation of cities. 47, Edit. especially because the divine justice will have souls suffer in stratia_ Qew~nte kai\ daimo&nwn. Edit., intelligebat Cicero falsa esse, etc. xvi. CONCERNING THE CHRISTIAN DUTY OF LOVING ENEMIES. Let them wipe off the brand of their own ignominy anddamnation. Caesar's birthday! H. Eccles. They were only the sayings and opinions of meremen, and so might be rejected or embraced as men thought fit; or if any part ofthe doctrine of a philosopher must go for law, the whole must pass for such too,or else his authority ceases. But this differencein your devotions is not grounded so much upon reason, or theknowledge you have of your deities, as upon the consideration ofthe emperor's present sensible power upon you; and it is uponthis account here I tax you with irreligion, because you stand moreheartily in awe of Caesar than of all your gods; for, in fine, you willsooner invoke all your gods round to bear witness to a lie thanswear falsely by the single genius of Caesar.2. Whatwar can we now be unprepared for ?1 And supposing us unequal, 1 iv. resurrection, but as His body rested in the grave, so His soul went into the place Now what is to be done with a man who knows himself in anerror, and yet knowingly dashes upon a rock, that the people may do so too ?who pulls out his own eyes to secure others in darkness; who neither deserveswell of those he permits to wander, nor of himself, whom he associates withpractices he condemns; who makes no use of his wisdom for the regulation ofhis life, but wilfully entangles himself to ensnare others, whom as the wiserperson he was obliged to rescue from error. For this is our notion of a resurrection, to be thatagain after death, which we were before; for, according to thePythagorean doctrine, these souls now are not the same they were,because they cannot be what they were not without ceasing to bewhat they were. 1 And you, O man! THE antiquity1 of the divine writings which I have alreadyestablished would be a proper topic to insist upon here, in orderto convince you that those writings have been the treasury of allsucceeding wisdom; and this topic I would pursue at large, was itnot for fear of swelling this Apology to a volume. But let me tell you, this mob are Romans,and the worst too of enemies we have; the Romans then of betterrank are certainly better subjects, and their fidelity greater inproportion to their quality; not a man of the senatorian orequestrian order but is all subjection; and not a breath of re- bellion ever comes from camp or court. CONCERNING THE SHAMEFUL REPRESENTATION OF THE GODS UPON THE STAGE AND AMPHITHEATRE. And for afurther proof of this difference, consider what was the answer thatThales the prince of naturalists made Croesus, when he was pressedby him plainly to declare his positive notions of the divine nature.Bid not the philosopher put off the prince from time to time withhis " I will consider on it" ? And thus likewise we see how the authority of theancients is valued like an oracle, when they deliver themselves in agreeableambiguity ; but when they cannot be made to speak for the party, why then theFathers are very ordinary people. Evan. 134 Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. The name Tertullien is ranked on the 124,218th position of the most used names. 2 THAT KINGDOMS ARE ONLY AT HIS DISPOSE WHO IS THE TRUE Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. Max. likewise for the same reason did Orosius at St. Austin's request write his seven And thus Tacitus, lib. 122 Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. Some of the blinder and perverser sort of heathens deridedthe primitive martyrs (as their passive followers since have been) for a sect ofbesotted, infatuated fellows, who did neither know nor feel what it was theyunderwent. Famae Negotiator, et Vita. " 1 etc. But if it be as you say, that they be the gods you worship whodo you all this mischief, and for our sakes too, why do you con- tinue such ungrateful and unjust gods in worship, who are somuch obliged to vindicate and assist you to the utmost of theiralmightiness against the Christians? Aprilium. LET us now consider a little the different treatment of a philosopherand a Christian. CONCERNING THE CAUSE AND REASON OF PUBLIC CALAMITIES. H. Eccl. 94 first ? iv. therefore you may be said to be nothing before you were in being, For certainly the reasonof a resurrection is only in order to judgment; and therefore it isnecessary that the bodies which have been instrumental to theactions should be the same bodies which are summoned from thegrave to judgment, "that every one may receive the things done inhis body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good orwhether it be evil. Tell me then, which do you take tobe the fullest and completes! When all the world has given such a loose tojoy, why do we not do so too, and darken our gates with laurels,1and put out the day with illuminations ? 7, Gen. xlvi. Hieron. Origen is of opinion that Plato byconversing with the Jews in Egypt came acquainted with the history of the fallof man, which after his enigmatical way he describes in his Symposiacs, where heintroduces Porus the god of plenty feasting with the rest of the gods ; aftersupper Penia comes to the door a-begging ; Porus being drunk with nectar, goesinto Jupiter's garden, and there falls fast asleep ; Penia observing it steals to, Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. with his legions, who in the opinion of the Fathers stood always ready to seize But then, say you, here will be nothing but dying and rising inendless succession. But supposing such a bodyof ethics possible to be collected from the writings of the philosophers as wefind in the gospel, how far must such a collection fall short from a complete,steady, indisputable rule of morality ! 1 Thus, forsooth, you give the counsel bywhat means we are to abuse you; but well we know from whencethe suggestions come; who it is that is behind the scene andprompts all this; and how he works sometimes by persuasive wiles,and sometimes by dint of cruelty, and all to throw us off from ourconstancy. THIS I take for a sufficient answer to that article which charges uswith treason against the gods, having demonstrated them to be nogods, and consequently no harm done them. fwsi\ kai\ stefanw&masi, by illuminationsand coronets of flowers. But you need not wonderat this loving title among Christians, when we own even you your- selves for brethren by the right of one common nature; althoughindeed you have cancelled this relation, and by being inhumanbrethren have forfeited the title of men; but by what diviner tiesare we Christians brethren ! that youshould look upon the patience of Christians as such an ingloriousthing, and yet for the persons aforesaid cast statues, and adornfigures with inscriptions and magnificent titles, to perpetuate thememory of their actions to eternity, to such an eternity as monu- ments can bestow; and by this means give them a kind of resurrectionfrom the dead. between a disciple of Greece and of heaven ? 98 Buy L'Apologétique: Apologie du christianisme écrite en l'an 197 après J.-C. (French Edition): Read Kindle Store Reviews - Amazon.com This Ammo-nius both lived and died a Christian, as Eusebius and Jerome testify, Hist. iv. Apology for the Christians. the devil they knew to be prince of the air, and this lower region to be filled Our author mentions these several sorts of conjurors, because manyof them had been put to death upon this account by Severus. The consequence therefore is undeniable, that the deities youworship are no deities; for if they were, the devils would neverpresume to lay claim to the title of gods, or the gods disclaim it.Since therefore both one and the other concur to the acknowledg- ment of this truth, that the gods in worship are no gods, you mustconfess them to be all of the same kind, that is devils. 1 AUGUSTUS,1 the founder of the Roman Empire, would by no meansadmit of the style of Dominus, or lord, for this is the surname ofGod. was obliged to write his books de Civil. Concerning the several crimescharged upon the philosophers in this catalogue, the reader may find themsufficiently dilated on by the commentators; but that which I think mostlyremarkable in this comparison between a philosopher and a Christian is, thathe concludes the whole with the instance of rebellion in Hippias, " a thing," sayshe, " which no Christian was ever heard to have attempted for the rescue of hisbrethren, though under the most provoking and barbarous usage." Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. 14, p. 242. 2, p. 275) "the Christians doubtless bestowed uponthe bodies of the dead, because they looked upon death as the entrance into abetter life, and laid up the body as the canditate and expectant of a joyful andhappy resurrection. lib. I shall mention but one Grecian artifice more, which wasby ascribing to some of their own nation what is recorded in the sacred history.Thus the Thessalians make Deucalion to be the person who escaped the flood,and from whom the world was peopled after it; and whoever compares therelation of Deucalion's flood in Apollodorus, Biblioth. words, ti/ gar kako&n e0stin ei0pein, ku&rie Kai/sar, But our author tells them that the flesh and blood of Christianswas like other folks, that they understood natural rights and liberties, had thesame aversion to suffering, the same passion for preservation and pleasure thatthe heathens had ; and whereas they alone were the people who seemed to haveforgot humanity, by their enduring the most exquisite torments not only withpatience, but with joy and thanksgiving, yet this was far from the effect of anystoical apathy, but purely the strength of their faith, which overcame the reluct- ance of nature, the sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life, whichenabled them to despise the life present, and that light affliction which is but fora moment, and which worketh for them a far more exceeding and eternal weightof glory. But maybe we cannot pass for right brotherswith you, because you want a tragedy about the bloody feuds of theChristian fraternity; or because our brotherly love continues evento the division of our estates, which is a test few brotherhoods willbear, and which commonly divides the dearest unions among you. Vid. CONCERNING ONE GREAT REASON FOR THE INNOCENCE OF And if when hurt we must not return the evil,for fear of being like the rest of the world, where shall we find aman to hurt? We choose to suffer as you choose to fight, but no man chooses fightingfor fighting's sake." ;pertinax Deorum indulgentia semper excubuit. When Herod and his father rw Igitabo kizwi cyane kurusha ibindi byose Tertullien yanditse, cyitwa Apology, kikaba kibonwa ko ari kimwe mu bitabo bikomeye birwanirira Ubukristo bwo ku izina. 2 That which we render the multitude of No, is in the original Amon de No. Is it not more likely that the gods should be in Caesar'skeeping, than Caesar in theirs ? Nor does singing de proprio Ingenio psalms oftheir own composing, imply that they were extempore psalms, for psalms deproprio Ingenio are in this place opposed to psalms de Scripturis Sanctis, takenout of Scripture, and not to precomposed ones. 3 Et si Paradisum nominemus, Locum Divina: amoenitatis recipiendis Sanct- orum spiritibus distinatum, maceria quadam ignea illius Zonae segregatum. By which he undoubtedly means the Chiliasm,or thousand years' reign upon earth ; for this he maintains in his books againstMarcion, lib. spirits will do so much at the impulse of men, what will they notdo by their own impulse, and for their own interest ? Apology for the Christians. These are our victorious palms and robes ofglory, and mounted upon our funeral pile we look upon ourselvesin our triumphal chariot. Issuch a scene of public shame a proper expression of public joy ?And are these becoming practices upon an holy day, which uponany day are abominable? CHARGED UPON THE CHRISTIANS. Ham,which signifies fervidus from the radix [Hebrew] : with notes [&c.] by W. Reeves.London 1709. THAT KINGDOMS ARE ONLY AT HIS DISPOSAL WHO IS THE TRUE GOD. 93. army, a faithful senate, an honest people, and a peaceful world, andwhatever else either prince or people can wish for. A FURTHER VINDICATION OF THE USEFULNESS OF CHRISTIANS very first page of Arnobius adv. Thus therefore by a touch of our hand, or thebreath of our mouth, scorched as it were with the prospect and repre- sentation of future flames, they go out of the bodies they possessat our command, but sore against their will, and gnashing and red-hot with shame, to quit their possessions in the presence of theiradorers. 59. But we Christians look upon ourselves as one body, informed asit were by one soul; and being thus incorporated by love, we cannever dispute what we are to bestow upon our own members.Accordingly among us all things are in common,1 excepting wives ;in this alone we reject communion, and this is the only thing youenjoy in common ; for you not only make no conscience in violat- ing the wife of your friend, but with amazing patience and gratitudelend him your own. iii. 133. touchstone by which all the different opinions of succeedingteachers is to be proved. 134 pages. And so again, Sat. 'But perhaps I am to think that it is the difference of places onlywhich causes the distinction of titles, and that your gods are to belooked upon as gods only in their own temples, and he who fliesthrough a sacred turret is begodded ; but he who passes through acommon house, bedeviled. THE Christian sect therefore for a certain ought to meet withkinder treatment than it does, and to be tolerated among otherlawful societies,1 because it is a sect from whom nothing hostile evercomes, like the dreadful issue of other unlawful factions. The Xystus was a gallery or portico of great lengthand breadth, and planted about with trees, where in the winter time the athletaeperformed. cap. For if in anyplace truth appeared in its native simplicity without the disguise oftype or metaphor, worldly wisdom, instead of submitting her faith,blended the certainties of revelation with her own philosophicuncertainties; for having dipped in the Holy Scripture, and foundthere is no other God but one, they presently divided into variousspeculations about the divine nature, some asserting it to be incor- poreal, others corporeal, as the Platonics and Stoics; some com- posing him of atoms, and others of numbers, as Epicurus and. THE CONVERSATION OF THE EMPEROR MARCUS ANTONIUS: A And now, O worshipful judges, go on with your show of justice,and, believe me, you will be juster and juster still in the opinion ofthe people, the oftener you make them a sacrifice of Christians.Crucify, torture, condemn, grind us all to powder if you can ; yourinjustice is an illustrious proof of our innocence, and for the proofof this it is that God permits us to suffer; and by your latecondemnation of a Christian woman to the lust of a pander, ratherthan the rage of a lion, you notoriously confess that such a pollutionis more abhorred by a Christian than all the torments and deathsyou can heap upon her. Vid. world ? cap. 1 2 Exercit. His due alone who has the sovereign authority ?since by your laws it is capital to call any one Caesar who is notsupreme, or to hear him so called by any other. If the Sovereign of the world has ordered itthus, you must have taken your destined turns whether you wouldor no ; but now He has established a resurrection once for all, asHe has taught by His Word; that Word or Reason which composedthe universe of various elements, and made it a consistent har- monious system by a due temperament of opposite principles, ofvacuum and matter, animate and inanimate, comprehensible andincomprehensible, light and darkness, life and death. So that was the account fairly stated how much thepublic is cheated in its revenues by the tricks and lies of those ofyour religion, who bring in an inventory of their goods in order tobe taxed accordingly; you would soon find, I say, at the foot ofthe account that what the temple may lose in her offerings by theChristian religion, the State sufficiently gets in her taxes by theChristian fidelity in their public payments. 120 Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. Nunquam enim corpus Umbra, aut veritatem Imago praecedit. Barrow, a truly moderate and good man, in his excellent discourse concern- ing the unity of the Church, says, " That all Christians are one by a specificalunity of discipline, resembling one another in ecclesiastical administrations,which are regulated by the indispensable sanctions and institutions of theirsovereign. Tertullian's Apology for the Christians. A CONTINUATION OF THE UNLIMITED LOVE OF CHRISTIANS. Fencing is that which is here meant, and because freely bestowed,called Munus, and the bestowers of them Munerarii. He is therefore great, because he is but less thanheaven; for he is a creature of His who made heaven and everycreature that ever had a being. 4kakei/nwn Yet even this same philosopher after he had given such aninstance of his true wisdom in denying the divinity of your gods,yet notwithstanding this (such was the inconstancy of the man) he. Vid. ; manifestatur veritas nostra,quod usu jam et de commercio innotuit, non utiq. Suggeriter enim ei a tergo, Respice post te, Hominem memento te. 141. life. ii. Cui bello non Idonaei, etc. pneu&matoj th_n xa&rin fasi\n, oi9 de\ th_n 9Rwmaikh_n a0rxh_n oi9j between a dresser up of lies and a restorer of truth? Why will you thus persist in error? Regulus not willingto put his country to the expense of redeeming himself alone, withthe liberty of many enemies, chose to go back and suffer all thetorments they could inflict upon every part of his body; O braveRegulus, in captivity conqueror! And a little after, Videbis sub manunostra stare vinctos, et tremere captivos quos in suspicis, et veneraris utDeminos. Vid. And we find this custom of washing the deadin the Acts of the Apostles, ix. 8, 3 But this inshort is my prescription 1 against these adulterers of the faith, to tryall their doctrines by the gospel, that rule of truth which camefrom Christ, and was transmitted by His apostles, that, I say, is the. For thus again, St. Cyprian in Epist. THAT CHRISTIANS ARE COMMANDED TO LOVE THEIR ENEMIES. And certainly our spiritual life iswonderfully nourished with reading the Holy Scriptures, our hopesthereby are erected, and our trust fixed and settled upon God.However, besides the bare reading, we continually preach andpress the duties of the gospel with all the power and argument weare able; for it is in these assemblies that we exhort, reprove, andpass the divine censure or sentence of excommunication ;1 for thejudgments in this place are delivered with all solemnity, and afterthe maturest deliberation imaginable, as being delivered by menwho know they are pronouncing God's sentence, and act withthe same caution as if God stood visibly among them; and thecensures here pronounced are looked upon as an anticipation ofthe judgment to come, and the sinner precondemned by God,who has sinned to such a degree as to be shut out by his ministersfrom the fellowship of the faithful, the communion of prayers andsacraments, and the rest of that sacred commerce.