It has been said of Dürer's woodcut: "probably no animal picture has exerted such a profound influence on the arts".[7]. La imagen se basaba en … Burgkmair corresponded with merchants in Lisbon and Nuremberg, but it is not clear whether he had access to a letter or sketch as Dürer did, perhaps even Dürer's sources, or saw the animal himself in Portugal. Medium: Woodcut. [35] Later printings have six lines of descriptive text. The elephant is afraid of the rhinoceros, for, when they meet, the rhinoceros charges with its head between its front legs and rips open the elephant's stomach, against which the elephant is unable to defend itself. The animal was examined by scholars and the curious, and letters describing the fantastic creature were sent to correspondents throughout Europe. The image is based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon in 1515. Discover and collect art from Albrecht Dürer’s iconic The Rhinoceros series and more. Albrecht Dürer. [10] The ship, captained by Francisco Pereira Coutinho,[11] and two companion vessels, all loaded with exotic spices, sailed across the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope and north through the Atlantic, stopping briefly in Mozambique, Saint Helena and the Azores. This may be Dürer's attempt to reflect the rough and almost hairless hide of the Indian rhinoceros, which has wart-like bumps covering its upper legs and shoulders. The German inscription on the woodcut, drawing largely from Pliny's account,[14] reads: On the first of May in the year 1513 AD [sic], the powerful King of Portugal, Manuel of Lisbon, brought such a living animal from India, called the rhinoceros. Le dessin est reporté sur le bois, puis gravé à la pointe et au burin, ensuite le tirage de la gravure fait que le sens est inversé sur la feuille par rapport au dessin initial. [11] Many further printings followed after Dürer's death in 1528, including two in the 1540s, and two more in the late 16th century. Despite its anatomical inaccuracies, Dürer's woodcut became very popular in Europe and was copied many times in the following three centuries. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. The Portuguese vessel stopped briefly at an island off Marseilles,[18] where the rhinoceros disembarked to be beheld by the King on 24 January. The rhinoceros was already well accustomed to being kept in captivity. Dürer's Rhinoceros is the name commonly given to a woodcut executed by German painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer in 1515. Dürer never saw the animal himself, but the woodcut he prepared became so famous that for two centuries it was the only rhinoceros Europeans ever saw. Schulfilm zu "Rhinocerus", einem Werk des Nürnberger Künstlers Albrecht Dürer aus dem Jahre 1515. [12] A rhinoceros had not been seen in Europe since Roman times: it had become something of a mythical beast, occasionally conflated in bestiaries with the "monoceros" (unicorn), so the arrival of a living example created a sensation. [2] Dürer never saw the actual rhinoceros, which was the first living example seen in Europe since Roman times. Hear about the contest held by Manuel I of Portugal. Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), « Le Rhinocerus de Lisbonne », 1515, xylographie sur papier, 21,4×29,8. Dürer’s Rhinoceros is a woodcut created by Albrecht Dürer in 1515 A.D. As an illustration of an animal at the center of a famous series of events, the woodcut was highly popular in the artist’s lifetime. . Gilles Le Corre: 1525 Durer Initials (2010). It has a strong pointed horn on the tip of its nose, which it sharpens on stones. ), This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 23:58. Español : El Rinoceronte de Durero es el nombre que recibe un grabado xilográfico creado por el pintor y grabador alemán Alberto Durero en 1515. Albuquerque decided to forward the gift, known by its Gujarati name of genda, and its Indian keeper, named Ocem, to King Manuel I of Portugal. In early 1514, Afonso de Albuquerque, governor of Portuguese India, sent ambassadors to Sultan Muzaffar Shah II, ruler of Cambay (modern Gujarat), to seek permission to build a fort on the island of Diu. It was to be housed in the King’s menagerie at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon. A blackletter. After two years he left the apprenticeship with his father to be … None of these features is present in a real rhinoceros. Title: The Rhinoceros. 1. [49], Although very popular, few prints have survived and impressions of the first edition are very rare. The popularity of the inaccurate Dürer image remained undiminished despite an Indian rhinoceros spending eight years in Madrid from 1580 to 1588 (although a few examples of a print of the Madrid rhinoceros sketched by Philippe Galle in Antwerp in 1586, and derivative works, have survived), and the exhibition of a live rhinoceros in London a century later, from 1684–86, and of a second individual after 1739. Dimensions: image: 8 3/8 x 11 5/8 in. The King was keen to curry favour with the Pope, to maintain the papal grants of exclusive possession to the new lands that his naval forces had been exploring in the Far East since Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India around Africa in 1498. It was regarded by Westerners as a true representation of a rhinoceros into the late 18th century. By this time the block was very damaged; the border lines were chipped, there were numerous woodworm holes and a pronounced crack had developed through the rhino's legs. Find more prominent pieces of animal painting at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. It is a world in which the nations of Europe were competing not just in Europe itself but across the globe in Asia as well as the Americas. Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros Can you make a visual representation of something you've never actually seen? He did this until until he was 15 and started training with Michael Wolgemut. [31] Dürer also draws a scaly texture over the body of the animal, including the "armour". Together with other precious gifts of silver plate and spices, the rhinoceros, with its new collar of green velvet decorated with flowers, embarked in December 1515 for the voyage from the Tagus to Rome. Even so, Bruce's own illustration of the African white rhinoceros, which is noticeably different in appearance to the Indian rhinoceros, still shares conspicuous inaccuracies with Dürer's work. (He never personally saw one.) Whereas, in the past, the study of zoology had been guided by classical authorities, there was a growing sense that firsthand observation was also of vital importance. Albrecht Durer. [46] In 1790, James Bruce's travelogue Travels to discover the source of the Nile dismissed Dürer's work as "wonderfully ill-executed in all its parts" and "the origin of all the monstrous forms under which that animal has been painted, ever since". ^ Some sources erroneously say 1513, copying a typographical error made by Dürer in one of his original drawings and perpetuated in his woodcut. Martin Lorenz and Joan Pastor: VLNL TpDuro (2019). [40][50], Some sources erroneously say 1513, copying a typographical error made by Dürer in one of his original drawings and perpetuated in his woodcut. 136; M., Holl. [14] The rhinoceros advanced slowly and deliberately towards its foe; the elephant, unaccustomed to the noisy crowd that turned out to witness the spectacle, fled the field in panic before a single blow was struck.[15][16]. Rhinoceros. See also a French translation in the doctoral thesis of Bruno Faidutti at l', Group of History and Theory of Science – Dürer's Rhinoceros, História do famoso rhinocerus de Albrecht Dürer, "Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros, a drawing and woodcut", The Durer Rhinoceros - Masterpieces of the British Museum, File:Durer's Rhinoceros on Cathedral Door, Pisa C17th.jpg, "Albrecht Dürer: Masterpieces from a Private Collection", Joachim and Anne Meeting at the Golden Gate, Portrait of the Artist's Mother at the Age of 63, Colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III, Amun in the form of a ram protecting King Taharqa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dürer%27s_Rhinoceros&oldid=996864863, Prints and drawings in the British Museum, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Portuguese-language sources (pt), Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It was housed in King Manuel's menagerie at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon, separate from his elephants and other large beasts at the Estaus Palace. [22] A second letter of unknown authorship was sent from Lisbon to Nuremberg at around the same time, enclosing a sketch by an unknown artist. Credit Line: Gift of Junius Spencer Morgan, 1919. Durer’s text at the top of the woodcut confirms the impression that the image gives of a powerful fighting beast feared even by elephants. Albrecht Dürer never saw a rhinoceros in real life. Cole, F.J. (Francis Joseph), "The History of Albrecht Durer's Rhinoceros in Zoological Literature," essay in Underwood, E. Ashworth (ed. fr:Utilisateur:Christophe.moustier Christophe.moustier ( fr:Discussion_Utilisateur:Christophe.moustier Discuter) . A live rhinoceros was not seen again in Europe until a second specimen, named Abada, arrived from India at the court of Sebastian of Portugal in 1577, being later inherited by Philip II of Spain around 1580. [44], The pre-eminent position of Dürer's image and its derivatives declined from the mid-to-late-18th century when more live rhinoceroses were transported to Europe, shown to the curious public, and depicted in more accurate representations. [35][39] There is an example in the British Museum. 136; M., Holl. See Clarke, p.19, for a photograph of a gargoyle. (21.3 x 29.5 cm) trimmed to block line except at top sheet: 9 3/8 x 11 3/4 in. It sailed on the Nossa Senhora da Ajuda,[9] which left Goa in January 1515. ‎Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) who achieved fame throughout Europe for the power of his images. The animal had been shipped to Lisbon in 1515 as a gift to King Manuel I of Portugal by Afonso de Albequerque the governor of Portuguese India. This image of a gift from a colonial governor to his king reflects a confidently expansionist Europe intent on bringing what it saw as its own superior civilisation to a world outside Europe that it thought savage and ignorant. A duel between a rhinocerus and an elephant? [33] His image is truer to life, omitting Dürer's more fanciful additions and including the shackles and chain used to restrain the rhinoceros;[33] however, Dürer's woodcut is more powerful and eclipsed Burgkmair's in popularity. Both of these paintings were more accurate than Dürer's woodcut, and a more realistic conception of the rhinoceros gradually started to displace Dürer's image in the public imagination. He places a small twisted horn on its back and gives it scaly legs and saw-like rear quarters. 241; S.M.S. © www.AlbrechtDurer.org 2019. [25][26] and printed a reversed reflection of it.[20][27]. Albrecht Durer. The carcass of the rhinoceros was recovered near Villefranche, and its hide was returned to Lisbon, where it was stuffed. The previous year, the Pope had been very pleased with Manuel's gift of a white elephant, also from India, which the Pope had named Hanno. The earliest known image of the animal illustrates a poemetto by Florentine Giovanni Giacomo Penni, published in Rome on 13 July 1515, fewer than eight weeks after its arrival in Lisbon. All Rights Reserved. A fine example was sold at Christie's New York in 2013 for $866,500, setting a new auction record for the artist. [30] Alternatively, Dürer's "armour" may represent the heavy folds of thick skin of an Indian rhinoceros, or, as with the other inaccuracies, may simply be misunderstandings or creative additions by Dürer. Eventually, it was supplanted by more realistic drawings and paintings, particularly those of Clara the rhinoceros, who toured Europe in the 1740s and 1750s. The rhinoceros is so well-armed that the elephant cannot harm it. Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) who achieved fame throughout Europe for the power of his images. Manfred Klein. Rhinoceros Albrecht Dürer 1515. [11], The block passed into the hands of the Amsterdam printer and cartographer Willem Janssen (also called Willem Blaeu amongst other names). Rhinoceros . To the modern eye it does not appear to be a very realistic depiction of a rhinoceros. The tower was later decorated with gargoyles shaped as rhinoceros heads under its corbels. Dürer produced a first edition of his woodcut in 1515, in the first state, which is distinguished by only five lines of text in the heading. Although the letterpress text atop this broadsheet suggests otherwise, he in fact copied the woodcut from a drawing and a description given by an eyewitness before the ship carrying this gift for the king of Portugal sank on the way from India. Provenance. 241; S.M.S. Clarke, caption to colour plate I, p.181. His woodcuts had made him one of the most famous and successful artists in Europe. 2-nov-2016 - and various related Dürer's Rhinoceros is the name commonly given to a woodcut executed by German painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer in 1515.